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What Is The Best Way to Study Human Anatomy in First Year MBBS

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The first year of MBBS can be pretty hectic and difficult to manage. With so many new subjects, classes, and labs, you can often get lost on how to approach each subject. Anatomy is an important and scoring subject in the first year of MBBS. 

What is Anatomy and its importance in MBBS?

Anatomy is the study of the identification of human body structure and other living organisms. 

The MBBS portion covers human anatomy in detail. It covers the human body structures both at the macro and micro levels. This is the foundation for your medical degree and covers in-vivid details of how a disease-free body looks like and the normal functions of each structure. Understanding anatomical structures will help you strengthen your understanding of different diseases and their root cause. The impact of different conditions on these organs will be easily understood if your anatomy concepts are clear. 

HUMAN ANATOMY

The best way to study human anatomy in first year is as follows –

Understand the syllabus

The first step to approaching a humongous subject like anatomy is to understand the vast syllabus. This will help you in preparing your studying strategy, and you will be better able to manage your time. 

The subject is broadly divided into-

  • General anatomy
  • Upper limb
  • Lower limb
  • Thorax 
  • Abdomen, Perineum, Pelvis
  • Head and Neck
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Embryology
  • Histology

Make clear and concise notes

The next step for studying the human anatomy syllabus well is to make good notes. These will be your handy tool when preparing for exams. Don’t just copy and paste points from the notebook. Make illustrated notes using mind maps, cycles, and acronyms in your notes to summarise a topic. Highlight important keywords and make bullet points from your understanding. This will help you deepen your knowledge and understanding and help in the long-term retention of the concept. 

ANATOMY

Refer to a few important books

To study human anatomy well, refer to a few important books. Stick to these throughout the studying time to absorb maximum information. Since visual learning is essential to understand anatomy well, pick out a book with high-impact visuals, which will help you remember the structures well. Diagrams and illustrations will help you recall the theory immediately.

Here are a few recommended anatomy books for you- 

  • B.D Chaurasia Anatomy 7th edition part 1,2,3
  • Vikram Singh Neuroanatomy
  • Cunningham manual of practical anatomy (Volume 1,2,3)
  • Snells anatomy
  • Netter’s atlas of human anatomy 

Be focused during dissections

The next essential point to remember when studying anatomy is to be very focused during dissections. This will further your understanding, and looking at things practically will help in building the basics. 

Use online tools and capsules for revision and practice

The next step is to refer to high-quality video lectures and capsules for learning. You can refer to e-gurukul by DMBCI. They have a repository of best video lectures, test series, and live support and doubt clearing sessions. You can refer to these and understand the entire topic clearly. 

Make a study schedule

The last but very important step is to make a realistic study schedule. Do not overestimate the time you have and try to fit everything in a day. Make a schedule that you can practically stick to and can learn from, effectively. Divide a large topic into smaller subtopics and plan the timetable accordingly. Understand that you will have multiple subjects to study along with classes and practicals. Understand the time you have and divide it for specific subjects like anatomy and physiology. This will help you cover the vast portion and prepare well for the exam. 

Good time management, good resources, and a practical schedule will help you ace the Anatomy exam well. 

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Bribing Doctors for Gifts and Freebies: The Dark Side of Pharmaceutical Companies in India

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Pharma companies in India bribed doctors with gifts and Freebies just for promoting their medicines recently reached the sessions of Lok Sabha.

New Delhi: When three Members of Parliament questioned the Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers about the existence of such unethical practices as well as the steps taken by the government to curtail them, the issue of pharmaceutical companies engaging in unfair and unethical practices to promote their medicines by sponsoring trips and providing gifts to doctors recently reached the sessions of the Lok Sabha. The idea of making the Uniform Code for Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices (UCPMP) mandatory for pharmaceutical corporations was also questioned.

Raid on Micro Labs

This particular issue of pharma bribery to doctors via freebies and gifts has recently been in the spotlight with the recent raid on Micro Labs, makers of DOLO 650 tablets, and the further incriminating evidence found by the income tax sleuths implying an almost Rs 1000 crore pharma bribery scam using gifts and freebies.

Responding to the questions raised by the 3 MP namely, Shri Nalin Kumar Kateel, Shri D.K. Suresh, and Shri Patel Hasmukhbhai Somabhai, the Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers Bhagwanth Khuba apprised about the steps taken by the Government to check such unfair and unethical practices.

The Minister informed that the Government has put in place a Uniform Code for Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices (UCPMP) for pharmaceutical companies, which is in operation since 01.01.2015, to prevent unethical practices by the pharmaceutical companies.

“This code governs the conduct of pharmaceutical companies in their marketing practices, duly covering the various aspects such as medical representatives, textual and audio-visual promotional materials, samples, gifts, etc. Further, the code establishes relationships with healthcare professionals, wherein the provisions related to travel facilities, hospitality, and cash or monetary grants to physicians or their families have been elaborated. The code also details the mode of operation of the code, the responsibilities of the Pharmaceutical Associations in constituting the Ethics Committee for Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices (ECPMP) for handling the complaints and Apex Ethics Committee for Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices (AECPMP) for review, the procedure of lodging a complaint, procedure of handling of complaints by the Pharmaceutical Associations and various penalty provisions,” the minister informed.

The Minister said further that the Complaints of violation of the voluntary UCPMP by pharma companies are forwarded to the concerned associations for taking necessary action. The code has been adopted by all the major associations of pharmaceutical companies and the Department in various instances has reviewed the implementation of the code by the pharmaceutical associations.

The Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, established under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 (102 of 1956), provides for conduct for doctors and professional associations of doctors in their relationships with the pharmaceutical and allied health sector industries. The minister also provided information on the governance structure. According to this, the respective State Medical Councils are responsible for handling any complaints of professional misconduct against a medical practitioner or other professional. In addition to UCPMP, there is a sufficient and enforceable legal framework in place to combat, regulate, and dissuade unethical marketing practices. Examples include the provisions of the Income Tax Act, the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, the Prevention of Corruption Act, and the “Indian Medical Council Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002” under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956.
The Minister has made it clear that the Department has not received any representations from civil societies or patient groups requesting that the UCPMP code be made mandatory. He did, however, mention that the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India is currently reviewing the subject in the writ suit (Civil) No.323/2021 filed by the Federation of the Medical and Sales Representatives Associations of India & against Union of India and Others.


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PG Medical Abroad: NMC WANTS GLOBAL RECOGNITION

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Application submitted by NMC to the World Medical Education Federation (WMFE) for its recognition.

New Delhi: The National Medical Commission (NMC) has recently submitted an application to the World Medical Education Federation (WMFE) seeking its recognition, which is a mandatory requirement for medical graduates to pursue their further studies in the USA and appear in the United States Medical Licentiate Examination (USMLE) for postgraduate training. This good news and hope are for the Indian medical students who want to study further in the United States of America (USA).

Indian medical graduates who are planning to pursue further education abroad can now breathe a sigh of relief because, starting in 2024, applicants for the Education Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification must be current students or graduates of institutions that have received proper accreditation from a WMFE recognized regulatory body.
According to a recent news story, the NMC has recently filed to the WMFE for this recognition as it does not currently have it. However, the complete certification procedure could take up to 18 months.
Medical students and doctors can enter residency programs or become MDs in the United States of America by passing the USMLE licensing exam. Any MBBS graduate from anywhere in the globe may enroll as long as their college is included in the World Directory of Medical Schools.
For all Indian doctors who want to further their future careers in medicine in the USA, this three-part exam for a medical license in the country serves as their entry point.

How do WFME works?

WFME, on the other hand, is a non-governmental organization that has been trying to improve medical education standards globally. Along with other global organizations like WHO, it collaborates with its six regional associations for medical education. WFME, which was established in Copenhagen in 1972, manages a recognition program to make sure that the accreditation of medical schools worldwide is kept at a level that is widely recognized. Accrediting organizations that apply and meet the requirements for the established standard are granted Recognition Status.
WFME has opted to exclusively recognize the accreditation agencies, despite previously accrediting medical institutions independently. This will make the approvals granted by such an agency subject to WFME accreditation.
You can further know about WFME from their official website.
www.wfme.org

According to the most recent media report by Money Control, NMC has now applied for WFME recognition. Without this recognition, medical graduates won’t be allowed to take the USMLE beginning in 2024. A representative from NMC confirmed the same, telling the newspaper, “We have extended our application for WMFE recognition with details such as how we offer affiliation to medical colleges in India and the plans to strengthen the accreditation process further to improve the quality of medical training.”

The number of medical colleges in India?

India now has 612 medical schools with 91,927 MBBS seats available for admission. According to data recently presented to the Parliament by Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya, there are 612 medical institutions total, of which 322 are government medical colleges and 290 are private medical colleges.

For approving a medical college in the past, NMC would consider the necessary resources and infrastructure, such as a teaching hospital and faculty. “However, under the new accreditation system, the focus will also shift to learning outcomes and the quality of doctors being produced in the colleges,” the NMC official said.

Dr. C. V. Bhirmanandham, a former vice-president of the old Medical Council of India (MCI), which has since been superseded by the NMC, commented on the issue and noted that numerous medical institutions have opened recently despite lowering the minimal infrastructural norms.
A former vice-president of the Medical Council of India (MCI), which has since been superseded by the NMC, Dr. C. V. Bhirmanandham, commented on the situation and noted that several medical colleges have started up recently despite lowering the basic infrastructure norms.
In this regard, he stated to the newspaper, “While the quality of training in some private medical colleges has been poor, I am afraid that the same may be true for many new government universities that have been granted in recent years.

NEXT exam licentiate for MBBS students?

Bhirmanandham clarified that the National Exit Test (NEXT) proposal was put forth by MCI for this purpose and that NEXT will serve as the common licentiate examination for all final-year MBBS students before graduation.
Bhirmanandham stated, “Steps like WFME recognition and NEXT would be significant measures to assure a higher quality of MBBS doctors in India.” The NEXT test, which is anticipated to be introduced starting in 2023, was also noted.


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NEET UG 2022 Results: release date expected to be in mid of August

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NEET UG 2022 was held on 17 July across different cities in India. The NEET UG 2022 exam which was held at various centers located in around 497 cities throughout in India and 14 cities outside India. Over 1.8 million candidates registered for the NEET undergraduate examination.

The National Testing Agency (NTA) will soon reveal the results of the 2022 National Eligibility Completion Entrance Test (NEET), which was administered on July 17. The anticipated NEET 2022 result date and time will be made public through www.neet.nta.nic.in , according to the recent update.

When the NEET result for 2022 is available, a direct link will be provided on this page. The NTA has not yet released the date for the NEET 2022 results.

When will the results of NEET 2022 be released?

The official NEET UG 2022 answer key would be made accessible by July 31, 2022, according to media reports. The NEET UG result date in 2022 is anticipated to be between August 18 and August 31, at the latest. However, there has been no official announcement or news regarding the NEET exam result date 2022.

The NEET 2022 result is anticipated to be released around the middle of August, according to media reports. The formal announcement of the NEET result release date for 2022 is still pending and is anticipated to be made very soon. Aspirants should consult the table below to see when the NEET results were released the prior year.

Exam Year Exam Date Result Date
NEET 2022 July 17, 2022 To be announced
   
NEET 2021 September 12, 2021 November 01, 2021
NEET 2020 September 13, 2020 October 16, 2020
NEET 2019 May 05, 2019 June 05, 2019
NEET 2018 May 06, 2018 June 04, 2018

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NEET UG 2022: Answer key for it is likely to be released today

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Download the answer key when it becomes available from www.neet.nta.nic.in .

NEET UG 2022 answer key to be available by today.

The answer key for the National Eligibility Cumulative Entrance Test-Undergraduate (NEET-UG) 2022 is anticipated to be made seen on the website soon by the National Testing Agency (NTA). According to the most recent local media reports, the NEET UG 2022 Answer Key will probably be made available by July 29th, 2022. In August 2022, the NEET UG 2022 Results are anticipated to be made public. For candidates, the website www.neet.nta.nic.in will have all the most recent information about the NEET UG 2022.

It is important to note that neither NEET UG 2022 result nor the release date for the answer keys have been officially announced by the National Testing Agency (NTA). Local reports, however, indicate that the NEET UG 2022 Answer Key will be released on July 29th,2022.

The National Testing Agency (NTA) is currently working on the NEET UG 2022 Answer Key and Result, which the students are anxiously anticipating. There is no fixed date for the NEET UG 2022 results.

The NEET UG 2022 exam was administered at various testing locations in 497 Indian cities and 14 foreign cities.

HOW TO DOWNLOAD THE NEET UG 2022 ANSWER KEY?

When NTA releases the NEET UG 2022 Answer Key online, follow these steps to download it:

Please visit www.neet.nta.nic.in

Select NEET UG 2022 Answer Key from the menu.

To log in, precisely fill out the Application Number and Password fields.

You will see the NEET UG Answer Key on your screen.

Calculate your likely score using the answer key that may be downloaded from the internet.


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Which Books Should Be Followed in 2nd Year MBBS?

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After successfully passing the first year of MBBS, these are the recommended books for the second year. 

The second year of MBBS is a 1 and a half year long term and has three semesters. The year is divided into 4 broad subjects-

Pharmacology

Pathology

Microbiology

Forensic medicine

How to study well for the second year

Understand the syllabus

It’s essential to know the syllabus during the preparation for the second year of MBBS. 

Microbiology is broadly classified into – General microbiology, immunology, systemic bacteriology, systemic bacteriology, mycology, virology and parasitology, and laboratory diagnosis. 

Pharmacology is broadly classified into – general pharmacology, autonomic pharmacology, haematinics, chemotherapy, operative drugs, and neuropsychiatric Pharmacology. 

Forensic medicine is broadly classified into personal identity and its importance, mechanical injuries, medico-legal aspects, forensic psychiatry, and toxicology 

Stick to important books 

To study well for the second year of MBBS, it’s important to stick to a few essential books. This will help you in making good notes, giving you a thorough understanding of the subject. 

Here are a few important books for these subjects-

PATHOLOGY

Textbook of Pathology by Robbins

Textbook of General Pathology by Bhende and Deodhare

Clinical Pathology by Talib

Oxford textbook of Pathology Vol. I, II & III

Pathology by Rubin and Farber

PHARMACOLOGY

Basic & Clinical Pharmacology by Katzung BG 

Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics by Satoskar RS, Bhandarkar SD 

Clinical Pharmacology by Laurence DR, Bennet PN, Brown MJ 

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology, a book by Roger HJ, Spector RG, Trounce 

MICROBIOLOGY

Textbook of Medical Microbiology by Rajesh Bhatia & Ichhpujani

Textbook of Medical Microbiology by Arora and Arora

Textbook of Medical Parasitology, a book by C. K. Jayaram Paniker

Mackie McCartney practical Medical Microbiology by Colle JG, Fraser AG

Principles of Bacteriology, Virology & Immunology by Topley Wilsons

Medical Mycology by Kwon – Chung

Review of Medical Microbiology by Jawetz

FORENSIC MEDICINE

The Essentials of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology a book by K.S. Narayan Reddy

Parikh’s Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology

Russell S. Fisher & Charles S.Petty: Forensic Pathology

MBBS second year notes preparing

Make strong notes

To study well in the second year of MBBS, it is essential to make strong notes. Remember to make your own notes and not just copy and paste them from these reference books and textbooks. Use illustrations, mind maps, flow charts, diagrams, etc. to make notes which summarize the concept. Highlight the keywords, so you remember the concept well for exams. Be crisp, concise, and use acronyms and other tools to summarize the topic well. 

Pay attention to the concepts

The second year of MBBS forms the base for the years to come. It’s important to have the concepts clear and understand each and every detail of the same. Pay attention in classes, during self-study, and during practice tests to find out how well versed you are with the subject. For this, you need to use different tools for your understanding and simplify the concept in your mind

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NEET PG 2022: Supreme Court dismissed the plea to postpone the exam

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NEET PG 2022 live updates: The Supreme Court on Friday denied the plea to delay the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test for Postgraduate (NEET-PG) 2022. The test is booked to be directed on May 21. The plea was attended by a group of doctors as well

The supreme court said that any further expansion will affect the affirmation plan fixed by the court in January 2016. According to this, NEET PG 2022 is as of now postponed by 4 months. The Center said that NEET-PG 2023-24 has been fixed in January 2023 and the work of govt is to refocus the confirmation plan that was wrecked due to Coronavirus for most recent 2 years.

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COVID-19 Symptoms

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 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by a novel strain of coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-C0V-2). COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. Some people may not experience any symptoms and remain asymptomatic, while some people develop mild to severe symptoms such as organ failure, difficulty in breathing. The odds of complications and series of illness is higher in older people and individual with certain underlying any serious medical conditions such as heart disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, or diabetes. 

People with COVID-19 usually develop symptoms 2-15 days after exposure to the virus. This COVID-19 infection, especially in the first weeks of onset, may cause symptoms similar to common flu or influenza. Also, these symptoms differ from person to person, depending on their age, sex, health conditions, vaccination status, and immunity. The most prominent and visible COVID symptoms are breathing difficulty, fever, and other related respiratory problems. For most mild to moderate cases, the COVID infection may remain silent and do not show any signs and symptoms. These types of mild and moderate COVID infection often do not pose any major risks of health concerns. However, if the symptoms progress, it may cause serious health complications. Therefore it is advised to consult a physician immediately for an early diagnosis and treatment.

Herein, in this article, let’s discuss some common signs and symptoms of COVID infection. Identifying and treating these warning signs at an early stage can help reduce the risks and complications associated with them.

COVID infection may cause a wide range of symptoms.

Some hallmark symptoms of mild COVID-19 infection that mimic cold symptoms include:

  • Low-grade fever (body temperature between 100.4 and 102.2 Fahrenheit)
  • Fatigue
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Headache, body pain, and tiredness
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting
  • Temporary loss of smell or taste
  • Skin rashes
  • Running nose
  • Chills
  • Muscle ache
  • Conjunctivitis or pink eye-Infection or inflammation of the eyeball 
  • Paling of skin, nail, and lips color
  • Nasal congestion
  • Loss of appetite

In general, all of these above-mentioned mild symptoms of covid infection resolves within a few days of onset without any need for special treatments and hospitalization. However, in some cases, people with mild or even no symptoms of COVID can still transmit the infection to others. Also, delaying the proper diagnosis and treatment of mild COVID symptoms can sometimes end up causing more serious complications that could result in hospitalization or emergency care. So it is always better not to neglect the above-mentioned mild covid symptoms and consult a doctor right away.

Unusual/rare symptoms of COVID-19 Infection include:

  • Slient hypoxia: A less common condition in coronavirus infected patients, where the affected person has inadequate oxygen saturation in their blood. Which in turn may cause breathing difficulty that requires immediate medical assistance.
  • Brain fog, hallucination, or confusion: In some cases, the body’s immune response against the coronavirus can affect the neurotransmitter that leads to the brain. This in turn may cause hallucination or increase the risk for anxiety and mood disorders. This type of symptom appears to be more common in older people with other comorbidities.
  • Vocal cord neuropathy: A condition where the vocal box (larynx) is impaired. This can occur due to a combination of excess mucous secretion in the throat or alternated blood flow to the larynx.
  • Hair loss: Overstimulation of hair follicles due to the coronavirus infection can cause or trigger hair loss. This type of loss of hair is temporary and usually returns to normal on its own. 

Some critical COVID symptoms that require immediate medical attention include:

  • Pneumonia: One of the serious health complications of coronavirus disease which causes fluid deposition and inflammation of the lungs makie it hard to breathe. In most severe cases, mechanical ventilation supports or oxygen therapy and immediate hospitalization are required.
  • Covid induced Septic Shock symptoms; Unlike other mild coronavirus symptoms, sepsis or septic shock can lead to life-threatening complications if not treated quickly.
  • Multiple organ failure: Infected patients having underlying health comorbidities pose an increased risk of developing multiple organ failure. These conditions may show signs such as seizure, chest pain, or gastrointestinal problems.

Most of the above-mentioned symptoms of severe Covid infection typically end up in the hospital-Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and pose an increased risk of life-threatening complications. However, with the right kind of medical intervention and treatment such as early vaccination and mechanical ventilation, it is possible to improve the outcome of coronavirus disease. 

Potential risk factors of COVID-19 infection:

Some of the most common risk factors for coronavirus disease are listed below:

  • Smoking
  • Older age
  • Pregnancy
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Taking certain medications
  • Underlying any serious medical conditions such as lung disease, heart problems, kidney failure, liver diseases, or cancer
  • People with weakened (immunocompromised) immune system
  • Neurological problems such as down’s syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, or developmental disorders
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What Is The Best Time To Start NEET PG preparation?

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National Eligibility Entrance Test or NEET, the pre-qualifying test in India for MBBS and BDS conducted by the National Testing Academy, is the first step towards realizing your ambition of becoming a doctor. 

One of the aspects of NEET PG is the time factor. When you should start your NEET PG preparations and how much time you should spend every day are crucial things you need to focus on. This blog will clarify your doubts to help you start the preparations at the right juncture. Read on to know more details. 

 NEET PG Preparation Tips

Details of NEET PG 2022Date of the exam (tentative): 22 May 2022
Important details of NBE NEET PGApplication Process
Candidates need to register online. The essential documents required are – the application form, photograph, scanned signature, thumb impression, and payment of fees.
Examination ProcessThe NEET PG examination is held online in the computer-based terminal model.The examination is sure to be held on a single day.The language will be English.The total time candidates will get for the examination will be 3.5 hours.It will be an MCT (Multiple choice type) paper. Like in previous years, the number of total questions will be 200. The marking scheme includes positive and negative markings. The examiner gives four marks for every correct answer and one negative mark for the wrong answer.
When to start preparing for NEET PG?Start your preparations as early as possible. But, there is no set rule.Some begin as early as six months prior, and some prepare only for three months. A few start a year earlier, preparing for NEET PG almost simultaneously with their MBBS final year exams.Technically speaking, you should start your preparations from the first year. It will help you cover and complete the entire syllabus consistently and well in time before the exams.
How To MemoriseChapters For NEET PG?Being focused helps when you sit down every day to study. You can improve your concentration skills with the help of techniques like meditation and yoga. Refer to viable preparation materials. There are many coaching institutes available online and offline. You may consider signing up with a credible one to help with preparations. Taking mock tests and solving previous year’s question papers effectively reinforce concepts. Doing this as a regular practice also allows you to gauge how well prepared you are for the upcoming exam. If there are mistakes, take care to address them authentically. Ensure corrections are done, know where you’ve gone wrong, and attempt the test again.  Your year-wise preparations for NBE NEET PG should be as follows:
First-year: Make sure to attend your classes and keep reading the textbooks on the three subjects introduced this year – Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry. Keep solving previous MCQs subject-wise.Second-year: If possible, enroll with an online academy to get your concepts clear. This is when complex subjects are introduced like Pathology, Community Medicine; Forensic Medicine, Pharmacology, and Microbiology. Keep reading textbooks and attempting chapter-wise MCQs. Also, start gaining practical information by attending clinics. Third-year: You will get a little more time this year to go through the previous year’s chapters. Review your notes, continue reading textbooks, and review questions and answers. Final year: This year will be challenging as you’ll need to manage curriculum and NEET PG preparations. Focus on the most common topics or topics that get repeated for multiple years. Continue the same spirit for the internship period too. Try new subjects and new question patterns. Go through previous years’ questions and mock papers thoroughly. Also, there could be some topics like Dermatology or Psychiatry that are not covered in the MBBS curriculum. For NEET PG, you will also need to have basic knowledge about these subjects. The internship period is the right time to study these topics or short subjects in detail. Take some tests online to be more confident. 
General NEET PG Preparation TipsStaying calm is ideal for approaching a competitive exam. Taking unnecessary stress is not advisable as it won’t allow you to concentrate fully on the course.Ample sleep is a must. Similarly, eating right and physical exercise are essential to stimulate the brain. All these three elements help keep you alert and attentive. Ensure you refer to the official site of the National Board of Examination in Medical Sciences (https://nbe.edu.in/) for information about the syllabus, dates, etc. One way that usually works well is scheduling time for your preparatory studies. Even the most studious candidate needs to have a fixed timetable. Every effort must be made to stick to the timetable. Avoid starting a new topic a few days before the examination. Ensure you cover all relevant topics beforehand and do not leave any topic for the last minute.

It is essential to start preparing for the NEET PG Exam early to have ample time for revision and doubt clearing. Here is the timetable that you can follow and stick to for excellent results.

Timetable to Follow For NEET PG Exam Preparation

Number of Hours You Should Study8-10 hours per day
General Activities3-5 hours
Sleep6-8 hours
Mock Test Practices3-6 hours
Revision3 hours
Online Doubt Clearing1 hour
Rest & Relaxation10 minutes after every hour during the study time

FAQs

  1. When should I start preparing for NBE NEET PG? 

Start your preparations from the first semester itself. Your studies for NEET PG should be simultaneous to your MBBS syllabus. In the first year, ensure that your basics are all cleared. Attend your classes sincerely, get your doubts cleared, and be thorough with your textbooks. Remember to make notes throughout, especially during clinical postings, as you learn a lot practically. The internship is the right time to gain more extensive and practical insight and expand your knowledge base. Some topics are not covered during regular semesters known as short subjects. You have time to revise, refresh, practice, and read new topics during this time. 

  1. How can I prepare for NEET PG 2022 if I have just completed my MBBS?

Go through your notes and cover all subjects. Try to cover all topics. Take mock tests and attempt previous year’s papers. Practice MCQ questions to improve your speed. There are varied study materials available online – it is good to take help to refresh various topics and revise all relevant topics.

Also, take care of your health, mental and physical. Prepare a timetable. Since you have limited time in hand, follow a disciplined routine for preparations.

  1. How are questions divided in NEET PG 2022?

There are two sections – Section A, Section B, and Section C.  Section A consists of 68 marks from Anatomy and Physiology and 64 marks from Biochemistry. Section B consists of Forensic Medicine of 40 marks, 80 marks of Microbiology & Pharmacology each, and 100 marks of Pathology and Social & Preventive Medicine. Section C consists of ENT of 40 marks, General Medicine & General Surgery of 180 marks each, Ophthalmology & Paediatrics of 40 marks each, and 120 marks for Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  1. Why should  I be well-prepared for NEET PG 2022?

It is a competitive examination, more so because the syllabus is exhaustive. To top it, every year, about 1.5 lakh or more students appear for approximately 40,000 available seats. Considering the competitive aspect, it is crucial to be well-prepared for NEET PG.

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Shades of Pandemic : COVID-19

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The beginning of 2020 brought a medical crisis that baffled scientists and doctors to date. It was the novel Coronavirus or Covid-19. The virus was unknown in human beings, and hence its severity, effect, transmission, ways to beat it had the scientific and the medical community at a complete loss. 

This blog will cover the various aspects of the Covid pandemic, throwing light on what has been discovered in its course of evolution in the past two years.

Shades Of Covid

The type of virusCoronavirus or Covid-19 or 2019-nCoV is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2).It is an RNA-enveloped single-stranded virus. Coronaviruses or CoV is a virus family responsible for causing diseases like the common cold.Covid-19 is a novel strain of Coronavirus and was not discovered in human beings before this.There are four genera of CoVs. These are alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-CoV. The alpha- and beta- Covidviruses are known to infect human beings. Some of the genera of CoVs are known to infect animals – for example, the SARS-CoV of 2002 is a virus that infects civet cats. Or, the MERS-CoV is a virus attacking dromedary camels which were later passed onto human beings in 2012. The novel Coronavirus is a zoonotic virus – a virus that is passed from an animal to a human being.SARS-CoV-2 is a genetically-related virus isolated from bats. The source of this virus type is still unknown.  Appearance The SARS-Cov-2 is characterized by a crown-like feature called c Latin, noticeable under an electron microscope. The crown-like shape appears due to the spike glycoproteins present on the envelope.  Detection of SARS-CoV-2An advanced sequencing approach based on RNA metagenomic is applied to detect the virus’s entire genome.The genome is 29,881 bp in length. It has 9860 encoded amino acids with structural and non-structural proteins.The structural proteins are the S, E, M, and N genes. The non-structural proteins are RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, papain-like protease, and 3-chymotrypsin-like protease.
Variants of Covid-19There are now five known variants of SARS-CoV-2. The first is the Alpha variant or alphaCoV or B.1.1.7. It is famously known as the UK variant.The Beta variant or betaCoV or B.1.351 is also known as the South Africa variant. This variant has five sub-genera. The Gamma variant or gammaCoV or P.1 is also known as the Brazil variant.The Delta variant or deltaCoV or B.1.617.2 is called the India variant.The Covid-19 VirusOmicron or Omicron variant or B.1.1.529 was detected for the first time in South Africa in November 2021. It is rapidly spreading across the world.Genome sequencing shows that the alphaCoV and betaCoV are present in bats and rodents. The deltaCoV and gammaCoV are present in Avian species
History of CovidIn December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was updated about an unknown form of pneumonia spreading fast in Wuhan City in China.Researches later revealed that the initial cases were linked to the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market located in Wuhan City. This market is one of the regional markets where all animal species are sold, including domesticated animals, wild animals, and seafood.As a result, the initial patients mainly were sellers, shop owners, and regular buyers. Detailed study of environmental samples collected from the market in December 2019 confirmed that this market was the outbreak’s origin. As per WHO, the first possible date of this outbreak is thought to be 8th December 2019.In January 2020, the Chinese government identified the source of the disease as a strain of Coronavirus. By 20th January 2020, the WHO and the Chinese government established that the virus spreads human-to-human. By mid-January 2020, the virus had already spread to many other provinces in China. By 24th January 2020, health workers in China were advised to use personal protective equipment while treating patients.On 30th January 2020, the WHO Director-General termed nCoV as a ‘Public Health Emergency of International Concern.’Meanwhile, the virus had spread to eighteen countries, and there was no death recorded outside of China.By 11th March 2020, the worldwide outbreak of the virus was termed a pandemic by the WHO chief. Meanwhile, the virus had spread to 114 countries with approx. 4291 deaths globally.By 19th March 2020, Italy became the epicenter of the outbreak. By 26th March 2020, the US was at the top of the list with the most confirmed Covid-19 cases.
Color codes used in specific areasAll countries have used color coding to identify hotspots and regions of high-risk, low-risk, or no-risk zones.Red indicates countries or regions with a high risk of infection.Orange indicates areas or nations where the risk of infection is moderate.Green indicates a geographical region with either low risk or no risk of infection.

FAQ

  1. What is the Delta variant?

The Delta variant or B.1.617.2 was classified as a variant of concern by WHO in May 2021. The variant transmits faster than the Alpha and the Beta variants. This particular variant was responsible for innumerable deaths worldwide in 2021. It has 13 mutations that alter the sequence of amino acids when encoding.

2. What is the history of the Delta variant of the Novel Coronavirus?

The Delta variant was detected and reported for the first time in India in mid-2020. It was officially termed Delta on 31st May 2021. By June 2021, the variant was declared by WHO as the most dominant strain globally. And, by 22nd November 2021, the variant had spread to more than 179 countries and more. 

The spike protein gene encoding of the variant is mainly responsible for the mutation of the Delta variant. In June 2021, the WHO said that this variant of concern is a highly transmissible disease with decreased neutralization. The second wave in India was due to this variant. It also was responsible for the third wave in the UK, South Africa, and Fiji. Besides these countries, the US, parts of Asia, New Zealand, and Australia also suffered blows from this deadly variant.

3. What is the Covid-19 VirusOmicron?

Coronavirus gets transmitted from human to human. It evolves and undergoes mutations so that the new variant is entirely different from the original virus. The Omicron or B.1.1.529 was reported for the first time by WHO on 24th November 2021. Two days later, the WHO published the variant as one of concern based on the recommendation made by the Technical Advisory Group on Virus Evolution. Information about the variant first came in from South Africa. 

4. What do we know about mutations of the Covid-19 VirusOmicron variant?

As mentioned by the WHO, Omicron has multiple mutations, which is the leading cause of concern. Compared to other viruses of concern (VOC), this variant has been found to carry an increased risk of reinfection. Since not much data is available about the variant, WHO has instructed member countries to increase genome sequencing efforts and submit the metadata to medical databases for further studies. 

5. What organs does SARS-CoV-2 affect?

The virus family primarily affects the respiratory, neurology, enteric, and hepatic organs of living beings, bats, cats, camels, and cattle.

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